is currently implementing central drinking water softening in the Greater
Copenhagen area. In areas with hard drinking water, softening can provide a
number of positive socioeconomic and environmental effects experienced by the
end users (households or industries) due to reduced problems with lime scaling,
a longer service life of household appliances and installations, and reduced use
of soap and detergents.
processes often focus on the reduction of water hardness. However, water
hardness is not the only and probably not the most accurate indicator of the
amount of lime scale depositing in kettles, toilets and tiles, and of how the
water users actually experience the effects of softening at home.
To get a
visual understanding of the changes the water consumers experience when they shift
to softened water, HOFOR A/S would like to investigate how softening affect
lime scaling during showering. To simulate how lime scaling occurs during
showering hard and softened water could be sprayed on bathroom tiles and photo
processing used to monitor the extent of the deposits. The experiment can be
carried out at HOFOR’s first softening plant in Brøndby where hard water and
softened water are both available. Other experimental ideas are welcome.
experiment will provide a clearer image of how softened water can ease the
everyday struggle of keeping tiles free of lime scale deposits. It can be used
to communicate with future users of softened water and with the public
authorities. This project will be carried out in close collaboration with HOFOR
In collaboration withHOFOR
Previous work in laboratory and understanding of the carbonate system is a plus