Drinking water quality Is it easier to clean the bathroom with central softening of water




Greater Copenhagen area

HOFOR A/S is currently implementing central drinking water softening in the Greater Copenhagen area. In areas with hard drinking water, softening can provide a number of positive socioeconomic and environmental effects experienced by the end users (households or industries) due to reduced problems with lime scaling, a longer service life of household appliances and installations, and reduced use of soap and detergents.


Softening processes often focus on the reduction of water hardness. However, water hardness is not the only and probably not the most accurate indicator of the amount of lime scale depositing in kettles, toilets and tiles, and of how the water users actually experience the effects of softening at home.


To get a visual understanding of the changes the water consumers experience when they shift to softened water, HOFOR A/S would like to investigate how softening affect lime scaling during showering. To simulate how lime scaling occurs during showering hard and softened water could be sprayed on bathroom tiles and photo processing used to monitor the extent of the deposits. The experiment can be carried out at HOFOR’s first softening plant in Brøndby where hard water and softened water are both available. Other experimental ideas are welcome.


This experiment will provide a clearer image of how softened water can ease the everyday struggle of keeping tiles free of lime scale deposits. It can be used to communicate with future users of softened water and with the public authorities. This project will be carried out in close collaboration with HOFOR A/S. 

In collaboration with



Previous work in laboratory and understanding of the carbonate system is a plus

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Company / Organization

DTU Miljø


Berit Godskesen




Supervisor info



Berit Godskesen


Hans-Jørgen Albrechtsen, Martin Rygaard, Camilla Tang

ECTS credits

5 - 15


BSc project, Course project, Special course

Technical University of Denmark

For almost two centuries DTU, Technical University of Denmark, has been dedicated to fulfilling the vision of H.C. Ørsted – the father of electromagnetism – who founded the university in 1829 to develop and create value using the natural sciences and the technical sciences to benefit society.

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